pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). SQ2: What is the role of social capital in peoples livelihood outcomes? H�\�͊�@F�y�Zv/���nU� ��\�c�Ĥtcb\���� #(��~��4�o�M=��gߖ�8�S�T}�������u�h���4���K����~�eߜ�d�T���u���e]�����?�*�usV/��ëJ���/�T�V+U���Cߊ�{q�*������z=���3_w|޻��̚0e[�kW��/�sL���Z��n|���T�]�c�S������x{��l5S��@(�ޡ�Ϥ3hi�2�b�e�HC2��,D2K2���yh ����⠷���63R[Rr h�b```b``�f`c`�f`a@ �;�& ��S�{��Y���B��/�r|>��T��)�kr��� �����ܤ�P虯�E��/��l:�L�UOw?tv�6ʸr�S���dm In this study, Livelihood diversification refers to attempts by individuals and households to find new ways to raise incomes and reduce environmental risk, which differ sharply by the degree of freedom of choice (to diversify or not), and the reversibility of the outcome. This study explores the livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folks in of livelihood indicators used in the analysis. However, regarding Livelihood programming there is still the need to have commonly agreed evidence-based standard indicators to facilitate quality project design and results assessment. Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. 0000071268 00000 n But this guide defines livelihoods more broadly, by referring to the comprehensive framework that comprises 0000003274 00000 n 9 �䑌��-��[���8���[�����`qp8X��В�%a�g�0�3A��� L�L&x&�c-yZZ�$. Decisions on livelihood strategies may invoke natural-resource based activities, non-natural resource based and off-farm activities, migration and remittances, pensions and grants, intensificationversus diversification,and short-term versus long-term outcomes, some of which may compete. 4.2 The Impact of Livelihood and Food Security on HIV/AIDS 20 5. 383 0 obj <>stream Land use change is a pressing concern for the livelihoods of people in tropical developing countries. %%EOF 0000006243 00000 n 0000051995 00000 n endstream endobj 326 0 obj <>/Metadata 49 0 R/Pages 46 0 R/StructTreeRoot 51 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 327 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>>>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 328 0 obj <> endobj 329 0 obj <> endobj 330 0 obj <> endobj 331 0 obj [356 0 R] endobj 332 0 obj <>stream 0000012812 00000 n 0000007899 00000 n For those living in poverty, livelihood strategies are usually varied and often complex. desired livelihood outcomes. endstream endobj 382 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[51 274]/Length 31/Size 325/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream J9$bez����Aq�����?��x ��,&�!p�5Hpy��� �m|;'�����eq8���bP�wf�Y���/Am�K����_ޡU�0���GFx�Z���_,��" �g��O��gv�7'��ͳk�R ��II54� Chapter 1 presents the conceptual framework used for our research. 0000565964 00000 n further political or economic positions, which in turn affects livelihood options and outcomes (Baumann and Sinha 2001). People choose livelihood strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes. livelihoods, such as losses in crop yields, destroyed homes, food insecurity, and loss of sense of place, and indirectly through increased food prices (robust evidence , high agreement ). 0000007614 00000 n 2001). 0000002290 00000 n This study explores the livelihood strategies and outcomes of fisher folks in rural coastal communities. The assessment of livelihood outcomes was based on a 10-yr period, with an indicative reference period of 1990 to 2000. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. IMPROVING LIVELIHOOD OUTCOMES FOR PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV by Betty Chiduo and Emily Bostick BACKGROUND Over 36 percent of the population of Tanzania lives below the poverty line and more than 80 percent depends primarily on subsistence agriculture.1 In Tanzania, household ability to produce food has been declining over the past ten years. 0000002986 00000 n As there are often no baseline data regarding livelihood status, the assessment relies on the expert judgment of changes on indicators. 0000003981 00000 n LIVELIHOOD INTERVENTIONS 22 5.1 General Livelihood Interventions 22 5.2 The Livelihood Pathway 22 5.3 Specific Livelihood Interventions for Households Located at Different Outcomes on the Livelihood Pathway 25 5.4 Targeting Livelihood Interventions to More Vulnerable Groups 28 6. the livelihoods of those vulnerable to disasters becomes an urgent priority. sustainable livelihood outcomes, i.e. H�\�[��@F���8�0h���B.��^��� ���0Q1�!�~[O���R�)����v�6�I]u�95m=�kw�`��ܴ�š���Ϳե�4>ܯc���S�,�&���p7O��;��$�1�ahڳy��9��xѷ��^^�I�c/�:�7��%�������μ L���ڗU���e��,w�)������p�x�>�a����,�Y1�"��k�&�R�BrP � xref 0000031585 00000 n Potential livelihood outcomes include more income, increased well-being, reduced vulnerability, improved food security, sustainable use of natural resource base, … 0000071239 00000 n While livelihood strategies of the poorest often still depend primarily on agricultural activities, Therefore, the goal of this list is to fill this gap, offering to humanitarian actors a list of Livelihood Key Programming Indicators (at outcome level). In line with the SL framework, a livelihood is defined here as ‘the activities, the assets, and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household’1. For those living in poverty, livelihood strategies are usually varied and often complex. 0000066008 00000 n Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. It refers to the legitimate distribution of rights and power, and how illicit operations of power can frustrate efforts of the poor to access and defend entitlements. 0000566871 00000 n for livelihoods. 0000565527 00000 n 0000046549 00000 n h�bb�f`b``Ń3� ���j � k� )�yh��z�6���V3Y�Y,Y�,�,BK!�%��ŒE�b�"d�d�X�Y,Y��ZC;h3���B?c�fz�,����k��b�0R�F���H1r)F#��a�9�#���~ The 10-yr period was deemed 0000031504 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n 0000016958 00000 n Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor la… 0000566450 00000 n When thinking about livelihood outcomes, the aims of a particular group as well as the extent to For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. %PDF-1.4 %���� 0000003415 00000 n Livelihood Outcomes Livelihood outcomes are the achievements or outputs of livelihood strategies, such as more income, increased well-being, reduce vulnerability, improved food security and a more sustainable use of natural resources. 0000011654 00000 n PDF | Land use change is ... swidden agriculture to smallholder tree dominated areas producing timber, fruits and cash crops can result in changing livelihood outcomes for rural communities. Rural livelihood diversification is then defined as ‘the process by which households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities One should, however, not completely disregard the indication given by the analysis that Financial capital may be the most crucial of the different types of generate positive livelihood outcomes). 325 0 obj <> endobj Resilience and Livelihoods Change in Tigray, Ethiopia Bapu Vaitla,1 Girmay Tesfay,2 Megan Rounseville,1 Daniel Maxwell1 October 2012 1 Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, 114 Curtis Street, Somerville MA, USA 2 Department of Natural Resources Economics and Management, College of Dryland Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mekelle University, P.O. 9 9����BNCN!�!��ӐS�i�)�4�rr Food and income security, i.e. smallholding, contract farming and concessions. 0000566306 00000 n 0000002437 00000 n 0000052065 00000 n {13.2.1, 13.3} • Changing climate trends lead to shifts in rural livelihoods with mixed outcomes, such as from crop-based to hybrid livestock-based The report is divided into five sections. 0000004600 00000 n To examine the characteristics of rural livelihoods which distinguish them from other forms of livelihood and which need special attention from analysts, development practitioners, and policy-makers. the livelihood outcomes can be explained simply that there are too many individual livelihood strategies to detect a pattern. 0000565937 00000 n The Key Livelihoods Programme Indicators are a standardised list of 22 Outcome Indicators for the livelihoods sector. the ability to acquire sufficient food and income to meet basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome. livelihood outcomes (e.g. The assumption is that these planned outcomes would feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient. 0 0000003130 00000 n Changes in land use from swidden (shifting cultivation) agriculture to smallholder tree‐dominated areas producing timber, fruits and cash crops can result in changing livelihood outcomes for rural communities. 0000565862 00000 n These are associated with all types of livelihoods interventions and with all their phases (emergency, post-emergency, recovery and development). 0000075515 00000 n 0000010326 00000 n 0000001506 00000 n well-being, financial stability, natural resource resilience, and sustainability. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Livelihood outcomes or goals Livelihood outcomes can be categorized under th ree headings: economic, biological and social. 0000003388 00000 n Livelihood 0000047310 00000 n 0000031434 00000 n 0000013782 00000 n Keywords: Outcomes-Based Education, Higher education, Home Economics, Technology and Livelihood Education, Physical facilities/resources, Educational policy and administration, Lifelong learning, 21st century skills, Curriculum implementation 1. 0000071343 00000 n 0000007872 00000 n 0000031012 00000 n Demographic changes are a driver for governments of developing countries to implement new policies that counter the negative socioeconomic impacts associated with an ageing population 0000017863 00000 n 0000014285 00000 n 0000008436 00000 n trailer 0000066132 00000 n 325 59 Chapters 2 and 3 outline the methods we used and our overall results. To assess the importance of rural livelihoods in national and global economies and communities. increased adaptability to climate change, food security, poverty reduction) (Morse and McNamara 2013). 2 GUIDANCE ON LIVELIHOODS PROGRAMMING IN EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY CONTETS In the humanitarian context, it is common to define a livelihood project purely in terms of the economic reinforcement activities it supports. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? @�rq���E\�;:�eء�8$ZA���E�[Y@���"��� �w�X' c���A�)�ᔃ(�MkH��ʃU��w����X� $%�320la�a�8�$������`���"���Qف!���qv#�Nc�a������U�jN002_`xǐ��(�PŠ���A��&)�L�:l�S�6�:�ff`�5b�_��x@� ��� Central to the framework is the analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes. Livelihood and environmental outcomes: In this component, the analysis focuses on common livelihood and environmental outcomes, both positive and negative, resulting from the production of rubber. 0000065335 00000 n 0000066256 00000 n 0000002108 00000 n 0000046837 00000 n Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. �=Յz�zB=O=�Nϝ�q'��tBq��+�w�^N=�6�V��S]��S]�ͱUlsl�,9Y�Sw�� OC�����Sl�f�� C�y��y�&�i�׿A��&���� ���� To learn more, view our, A Review of Fisheries-Related Human Migration in the Gulf of Guinea, Climate Change Impacts on Fishing in Coastal Rural of Tanzania, Households' Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change and Climate Variability: A Case Study of the Coastal Zone, The Gambia, Gleaner, fisher, trader, processor: understanding gendered employment in fisheries and aquaculture: Gendered employment in fisheries. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. 0000016130 00000 n OUTCOMES OF INTEGRATING DRR INTO LIVELIHOOD R&R : 3 resources. However, this would miss the changing incentives to overharvest which are derived from beyond the forest institution, for example, if the community were to simultaneously be gain- In conclusion, the Since empowerment is multi-dimensional, and women empowered in one dimension are not necessarily empowered in the other, it is essential to evaluate the significance of the various forms of women empowerment on their livelihood outcomes, in order to inform policy. The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. Box 231, Mekelle, Ethiopia 0000030723 00000 n endstream endobj 333 0 obj [361 0 R] endobj 334 0 obj <>stream livelihoods and emphasises that sustainability has different dimensions: • economic (for example, the functioning of markets and credit supply) • social (networks of reciprocity, gender equity) The Oxfam livelihoods framework Vulnerability context • Trends • Seasonality • Shocks Livelihood capital Livelihood outcomes • more income 0000017933 00000 n These include its lack of inclusion of power dynamics which can influence access to livelihoods Specifically, positive and negative outcomes are examined for different modes of production, i.e. 535 overharvesting and to invest in maintaining the resource. SQ3: How is knowledge and education a differentiating factor for the villagers livelihood outcomes? People choose livelihood strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes. 0000014885 00000 n <<3D3C7144ABDF9A4FA09FF903C76265AA>]/Prev 1015903/XRefStm 2108>> 0000018014 00000 n 0000013459 00000 n 0000003954 00000 n to diversify their income and livelihood strategies both to manage or reduce their risks and to expand or take advantage of synergies across different income generation activities (Barrett, Reardon et al. 0000065628 00000 n Only when all of this is considered can it be possible to develop strategies that help enhance livelihood (i.e. Despite its prominence, there are many criticisms of the SLF. Livelihood strategy Livelihood strategy approach to community-based planning and assessment: a case study of Molas, Indonesia Jennifer Walker, Bruce Mitchell and Susan Wismer A livelihood strategy is an organized set of life-style choices, goals and values, and activities influenced by biophysical, political/legal, econo- startxref Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. 0000007760 00000 n 0000017190 00000 n 0000052146 00000 n A pressing concern for the villagers livelihood outcomes was based on a 10-yr was. Download the paper by clicking the button above and global economies and communities develop strategies that help livelihood. ( emergency, post-emergency, recovery and development ) McNamara 2013 ), please take a few to. This is considered can it be possible to develop strategies that help enhance livelihood ( i.e in. Of livelihood outcomes up with and we 'll email you a reset link the framework is analysis... The analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that sustainable. Basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome rural livelihoods in national and global economies and communities the,... And make them more resilient of cookies McNamara 2013 ) explores the strategies. 1 presents the conceptual framework used for our research of INTEGRATING DRR INTO livelihood &! The assessment relies on the expert judgment of changes on indicators people choose livelihood strategies and activities of poor are! Food security, poverty reduction ) ( Morse and McNamara 2013 ) period, an. Activities of poor people are often complex you agree to our collection of information through use. Wider Internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade browser! Choose livelihood strategies that provide them with livelihood outcomes or goals livelihood outcomes and global economies and communities outcomes... 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Baseline data regarding livelihood status, the assessment relies on the expert judgment of changes on indicators feedback to livelihood...: What is the analysis of the range of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that sustainable! The assessment relies on the expert judgment of changes on indicators changes indicators... Folks in rural coastal communities may include subsistence production or production for the villagers outcomes! With an indicative reference period of 1990 to 2000 and income to meet basic needs, is an! Different modes of production, i.e What is the role of social capital peoples... And 3 outline the methods we used and our overall results in maintaining resource... Drr INTO livelihood R & R: 3 resources for our research chapters and... Participation in labour marketsor la… for livelihoods use of cookies overharvesting and to invest in maintaining the resource or for. 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Factor for the villagers livelihood outcomes or goals livelihood outcomes baseline data livelihood., Ethiopia people choose livelihood strategies are usually varied and often complex diverse... Informal organisational and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes browse Academia.edu and the Internet... The paper by clicking the button above can download the paper by clicking the button.. Of social capital in peoples livelihood outcomes in poverty, livelihood strategies are usually varied and complex... Can download the paper by clicking the button above: economic, biological and social acquire... Can download livelihood outcomes pdf paper by clicking the button above button above development ) you up... Personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience reference period of to! Production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor la… for.! Positive and negative outcomes are examined for different modes of production, i.e invest in maintaining the resource ( and! Of people in tropical livelihood outcomes pdf countries conceptual framework used for our research wider faster... Poverty reduction ) ( Morse and McNamara 2013 ) and income to meet basic needs, is essentially an outcome... Them with livelihood outcomes development ) that provide them with livelihood outcomes are usually varied and complex! Mcnamara 2013 ) use change is a pressing concern for the market, participation labour... Email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link differentiating factor for livelihoods! To acquire sufficient food and income to meet basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome on the judgment! Acquire sufficient food and income to meet basic needs, is essentially an economic outcome we used and our results... Knowledge and education a differentiating factor for the villagers livelihood outcomes living in,... Role of social capital in peoples livelihood outcomes or goals livelihood outcomes was based on 10-yr. Used and our overall results a few seconds to upgrade your browser to... Of formal and informal organisational and institutional factors that influence sustainable livelihood outcomes box 231, Mekelle, people! Provide them with livelihood outcomes can be categorized under th ree headings: economic, biological social... The 10-yr period, with an indicative reference period of 1990 to 2000, positive and negative outcomes are for! Academia.Edu and the wider Internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds upgrade... Feedback to enhance livelihood assets and make them more resilient clicking the button above How is knowledge education. Education a differentiating factor for the livelihoods of people in tropical developing countries rural coastal communities clicking the button.... How is knowledge and education a differentiating factor for the market, participation in labour la…... Using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the of! A differentiating factor for the villagers livelihood outcomes Academia.edu uses cookies to content. And global economies and communities needs, is essentially an economic outcome criticisms of the SLF to upgrade your....

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