Just walking past, or sitting near, the active emitter for a short time could cause damage. (Walonick, 1990) reports in a experiment that below 8Hz had caused agitation and uneasiness for participants. These techniques have allowed for a greater amount of research in the 21st century, and as a common theme, this is particularly within the U.S military. Neurotechnology in national security and defense: Practical considerations, Neuroethical concerns. As adjectives the difference between infrasonic and supersonic is that infrasonic is (of sound waves|acoustics) having frequencies below the human audible range while supersonic is (of a speed) greater than the speed of sound (in the same medium, and at the same temperature and pressure). Retrieved from http:// www.spannered.org/features/806/, Stathatos, S. (n.d.). Write an article and join a growing community of more than 119,700 academics and researchers from 3,848 institutions. Earlier research of infrasound of hurricanes offer some hope of converting the infrasound signature of an approaching hurricane. In 1973, The United States deployed the Urban Funk Campaign, a psychoacoustic attack during the war with the intention of altering mental states of their enemies (Goodman, 2010). The mosquito MK4 anti-loitering device. Quartz crystal. Beta brain waves: 12 Hz to 40 Hz. Some people are more sensitive than others, and although skin reflects 99.9% of ultrasonic sound waves, our ears are much more susceptible to the energy carried by those waves. However, more controlled trials are needed to test additional protocols with outcomes.” It is in review of physiological effects of brainwave entrainment we see in many pieces of research and literature such as that by, (Wahbeh, Calabrese, & Zwickey, 2007) & (Huang & Charyton, 2008), that confirm increased Serotonin levels within the body due to brainwave entrainment. No physiological experiments were conducted, but it was estimated that at such a pressure it would take from 30 to 40 seconds to kill a man. Sound. … Oil Bird. Between 20 Hz to 20000 Hz. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/usound.html, Georgia State University. Perhaps infrasonic sound provides the right range of sound for the circumstance of shared earth. Acoustic noise. Ex-amples of the former are thunder, volca-nic activity, winds, large waterfalls and the impact of ocean waves, whereas examples of the latter are high-powered aircraft and rocket propulsion systems, explosions, sonic booms, bridge vibra- Beneficial Subliminal Music: Binaural Beats, Hemi-Sync and Metamusic. (Caterina Filimon, n.d). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378595507000329, Howard, D. M. & Angus, J. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/woody_norris_invents_amazing_things?language=en, Pellegrino, R. & Productions, E. A. Gavreau’s discovery within this field has been largely researched and discussed throughout the acoustic warfare field. We do know, however, that high- intensity infrasound causes headache, fatigue, and anxiety . When discussing infrasound, it’s often associated with acts of. We are here to serve electronically Targeted Individual (TI) victims to help save them from their perps. ), Giordano, J. Limited literature within the infrasonic frequency range allows for an array of research speculating conspiracies within the utilisation of infrasonic frequency ranges as a means of non-lethal weaponry and crowd control. The method was conducted by playing 4 musical pieces to 700 participants two of which had 17hertz frequencies played unknowingly to the participants during the piece. Retrieved from http:// drjoedispenza.com/files/understanding-brainwaves_white_paper.pdf, LRAD . Instructions and a Patent for a ‘Phasor Pain Field Generator’ can be found, which emits ultrasonic frequencies at 20,000Hz to 25,000Hz as a schematic for a handheld self-defence device, specifying that it’s “intended for Law Enforcement, Personal Or For Qualified Acoustical Research” (Free Information Society, no date) & (De Laro Research, 2014). Pain is 120. . It’s called infrasound, and its effect on human beings is not completely understood. The first is that it can heat up cells in the body, causing damage. Sonic weapons fall into two categories: those that involve audible frequencies, and those that are either ultrasonic or infrasonic and so are inaudible. Sonic weapons fall into two categories: those that involve audible frequencies, and those that are either ultrasonic or infrasonic and so are inaudible. These ghosts, these ancestors, are going to tell the Vietcong to stop messing with the people’s right to live freely, or the people are going to disown them.” The helicopter dropped to within twenty feet of the trees. (c) Infrasonic wave : A longitudinal elastic wave whose frequency is below the audible … A large influence on the development and notable usages of infrasonic frequencies as a means of deterrence, was the development of a low-frequency acoustic device by French scientist Vladimir Gavreau (Lothes, 2004). However, when discussing the LRAD device we must also consider it’s use of ultrasound, as this device also applies ultrasound within it’s mechanism — this will be discussed in section 4.3.1. • The sound waves having frequencies above the audible range i.e. A single ultrasonic emitter (loudspeaker) would struggle to generate enough power to affect someone halfway across a typical room. LRADs have been used by the US Navy to repel pirates. (2001). The perps hate us for that! Paranoia — Paranoid schizophrenics are actually able to generate much more high beta (25–30Hz) activity than the average population. Sound deserves its own pollution category. Retrieved from http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378595510003126, Sargeant, J. The article in New Scientist reports that the audio produced psychoacoustic effects giddiness, nausea, fainting, or merely a “spooky” psychological effect to targets. Infrasonic Sound Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sound/infrasound.html, Gerard, P. (2002). Binaural beat technology in humans: A pilot study to assess Psychologic and physiologic effects. The so … United States: New American Library, Liljeström, S. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.zemos98.org/controlsonoro/ 2008/03/08/sonic-doom-by-jack-sargeant/, Scott, R. L. & Monitor, T. C. S. (2010) War without death? Infrasound has been utilised as a means of sonic warfare for physical human impact, dating back to World War 1. It is these tactics and technologies used within the early years of the military’s application of sound that allow for a greater insight into their usages. The stimulus frequency reverberated by this induces a specific cerebral wave corresponding to characterised states of mind. The effect of this allows the brain to detect the phase difference between the two frequencies, rather than the brain responding to each frequency, the effect comprises of the difference between the two. The device utilised both infrasonic and ultrasonic frequencies, which emitted high decibel oscillations from a mounted helicopter onto the Vietnamese ground troops (Toffler, Alvin, & Toffler, 1995). Hearing Research. (2014). The sonic boom of supersonic aircraft contains significant levels of infrasound. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, Huang, T. & Charyton, C. (2008). RE: Do earthquakes produce infrasonic and/or ultrasonic sound before main shocks? ‘The Sonic Doom of Vladimir Gavreau’ by Gerry Vassilatos. Infrasonic is a related term of supersonic. (2003) Sesame Street breaks Iraqi POWs. It is resonance within the human body that is thought to create the psychological effects of that mentioned in the previous chapter. Despite some disadvantages, ultrasound is used in various tools including motion sensors. (2005). The effect of this involves a speaker which emits low level ultrasound at around 100,000 vibrations per second, resulting in the audio creating the sound in the air as it travels, as a pose to regular speakers which make the sound waves on the face of the speaker (Norris, 2004). I would imagine that if your brainwaves get high enough in the beta range, you will begin to notice a fear of things that are not normal to freak out over. This is also officially published by University of Portsmouth. (2008). Ultrasonic Sound. In many cases, we see the application of sound utilised in order to effect the six mechanisms discussed in chapter 3.2, allowing them to apply the use of sound for non-lethal warfare. . The eruption of the Fuego volcano in Guatamala produced infrasonic sound in excess of 120 decibels in the range below 10Hz. Contrary to that described previously, the use of binaural beats has been actively discussed as a means of stress relief for participants, with research such as that collated by (Huang & Charyton, 2008) citing “People suffering from cognitive functioning deficits, stress, pain, headache/migraines, PMS, and behavioural problems benefited from BWE. As technologies have developed, it’s apparent that military bodies within the world seek to create weapons resulting in “war’s without death” (Scott & Monitor, 2010). Founded by Grammy-nominated mastering engineer Pete Lyman, Infrasonic’s team of engineers include Dave Gardner, Daniel Bacigalupi, and Piper Payne. Given that it is hard for powerful ultrasound to reach us – and that most of it then bounces right off our skin – it seems to be a strange choice of weapon. Emotion and meaning in music. & Honours, B. Goodman states “…resonating with alpha and theta rhythms in the brain known to produce moods of fear, anxiety or anger” (Goodman, 2009, p. 18). Retrieved from http://www.iwar.org.uk/psyops/resources/us/jp3_53.pdf, Vassiltos, G. (n.d.). adjective noting or pertaining to a sound wave with a frequency below the audio-frequency range. Vinokur, drew from Gavreau’s invention stating within his publication The Case of the Mythical Beast. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/ 2010/0311/War-without-death-How-non-lethal-weapons-could-change-warfare, Spannered. Audible sound waves whose frequencies are less than 20 Hz are in the infrasonic range. The LRAD focuses a directional 15° to 30° beam of sound between 1kHz and 5kHz reaching a distance of around 5,500 meters (LRAD , 2015). Sonic and ultrasonic weapons (USW) are weapons of various types that use sound to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opponent.Some sonic weapons are currently in limited use or in research and development by military and police forces. Infrasonic weapons like the long range acoustic device (LRAD) rely on loud, low frequency sounds (infrasound). Ultrasonic Sound has a frequency greater than the audible frequency range. While the voice hissed and hooted, a sergeant hurled out handfuls of leaflets which made the same threats in writing.” (Pilger, 1986). Sound produced by earthquakes, thunder, volcanoes are in Infrasonic range. Sometimes you may experience a continuous ringing in the ears even after the device is turned off” (Free Information Society, no date). Less than 20 Hz. Although not deliberate, this could lead to cavitation damage. There are however, in contrary to this, studies also suggest the mechanisms of the ear have a normal reaction to infrasonic sound. However, it is in fact discussed by (L. Fannin, Ph.D, no date) that the effect of BWE on frequency ranges that are already heightened within our brain is what causes a negative effect. The spectrum beyond human audible range defines itself as ultrasound, this being above 20,000Hz. Urasonic waves and infrasonic waves 1. Our internal organs (heart, liver, stomach, kidneys) are attached to the bones by elastic connective tissue, and at low frequencies may be considered simple oscillators. Ultrasound is also highly directional. (n.d.). Here are 4 theories.," 8 June 2018 An infrasonic or ultrasonic weapon can cause hearing loss and physical pain by emitting a sound not audible to a human ear within the vicinity of the victim. (n.d.). This depended on similar technologies of that used today in the medical industry, however since then, we have seen research within ultrasonic frequencies rise in many differing fields. Any sound gets less powerful the further you are from a loudspeaker, but ultrasound loses power far more quickly with distance than audible sounds do. Hearing Research. This instils the ‘third’ frequency to resonate at an infrasonic range below 20–30Hz. • Generally these waves are called as high frequency waves. It is the LRAD’s highly directional and high decibel sound that perhaps allows us to see the effect of the Brain Stem Reflex discussed in section 3.1. Retrieved from https://borderlandsciences.org/journal/vol/52/n04/ Vassilatos_on_Vladimir_Gavreau.html, Vinokur, R. (1993). Exploring the use of audio to influence humans physically and psychologically as a means of non-lethal warfare methods throughout both … (2015). Journal of Sound and Vibration. Sonic, Infrasonic, and Ultrasonic Frequencies: The utilisation of waveforms as weapons, apparatus for psychological manipulation, and as instruments of physiological influence by industrial, entertainment, and military Organisations. Frequencies above 20,000 Hz are in the ultrasonic range. As described in, Secret Weapons of the Third Reich (E. Simon, 1971), one such device is discussed: “…design consisted of a parabolic reflector, 3.2 meters in diameter, having a short tube which was the combustion chamber or sound generator, extending to the rear from the vertex of the parabola. (Ed.) All objects have a property known as their resonant frequency, this involves the “re- enforcement of vibrations of a receiving system due to a similarity to the frequencies of the source” (Pellegrino & Productions, 1996). However, what these to techniques did not allow for was the development ultrasound, resulting in the audio being highly directional. Sonic Warfare and Music both Exploit the Negative Effects of. However, though it is well documented that music and sound has been used within interrogation scenarios, this perhaps does not allow us to have an understanding of how sound effects our brain, as one can associate it’s effect as more physiological, due to sensory depravation caused, as a pose to psychological change. Sound waves with frequencies less than 20Hz are called infrasonic or subsonic and those with frequencies above 20kHz are called ultrasonic.. Infrasonic waves As previously cited by (Goodman, 2010), it is documented that the frequency range of 7Hz is thought to instil effects of uneasiness, anxiety, fear and anger. (2015). The infrasonic sounds have below the lower limit of human hearing. Music and emotion: Theory and research. Advanced applications in acoustics, noise, and vibration (1st ed.). Stress — Though there are many good things that come with beta waves, there is also a huge possibility that they may stress you out. Sources:Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. Example. Mechanical resonant frequency of the human eye ‘in vivo’”. Department of Composition and Musicology University of Arts, University of Arts George Enescu, 1790–5095, 104–105, Compound Security. Sources of infrasound in nature include volcanoes, avalanches, earthquakes and meteorites. The key difference between infrasonic and ultrasonic waves is that infrasonic waves include sounds emitted at levels below frequencies of noise that can be heard by humans while ultrasonic waves are those that exceed 20 kilohertz, which is the upper limit of human noise perception. We can also see from this that the application of ultrasound has in fact been popular by the military and one could assume that there may be more progressed development within this field. This is important because with regular subliminals, both the messages and foreground sound occur on the exact same frequency. Brainwave entrainment (or often referred to as neural entrainment) defines itself as the use of certain frequencies to activate bands of electrical wave resonance within our brain, to induce neurological states within our body. Following this discovery Gavreau made discussions that highlighted the effect of infrasonic frequencies to humans, citing it as a possible cause of city dwellers’ stress (Broner, 2003). (Vinokur, 1993), “. A. S. (2009). Jeffrey L. Fannin, Ph.D, discusses: “Anxiety — Too much beta activity may cause you to feel afraid or have thoughts of fear towards things that you are usually calm. This method of entrainment occurs when two coherent frequencies within our audible range, are made present in both the left and right ear. Uses of ultrasonic waves Echoes of ultrasonic waves used for measuring the depth of sea-bed or locating submerged objects. However, it is important to understand at this point within this study, that this does not just encompass infrasonic sound but also applies to ultrasonic sound too. WARNING ALERT! It’s apparent that some concepts of using infrasound may violate disarmament treaties, for example, the 1999 European Committee stated: “global ban on all research and development, whether military or civilian, which seeks to apply knowledge of the chemical, electrical, sound vibration or other functioning of the human brain to the development of human beings, including a ban on actual or possible deployment of such systems” (Giordano, 2014). We also see many deployments of sonic frequencies, used in order to impact subjects negatively in varied military approaches such as interrogation, crowd control and creating fear against enemies. Sonic. The preliminary proof of concept and main body of contextual research in this field stems from German professor of Physics, Heinrich Wilhelm Dove, who made discoveries in brainwave entrainment (BWE) through infrasonic frequencies entitled “Binaural beats” in 1841 (Kliempt, Ruta, Ogston, Landeck, & Martay, 1999). The natural frequencies of most of them are below 12 Hz (which is in the infrasonic range). This Is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. But Barry Manilow also drives teenagers from shopping malls. That’s when we come in and talk to them.” (BBC, 2003). Ultrasonic and Infrasonic Waves Ultrasonic sound waves are fast moving waves that can not usally be herd by the human ear. this amplitude decreases as the damping increases. The vibrational movement created by the infrasonic frequency result in large fluid movements of cochlear fluid, the intermixing of cochlear fluid is hypothesised to result in lasting damage. It also cannot be felt or heard, which fits the facts reported by the diplomats. The use of the LRAD has been seen as a means of crowd control and has been identified in scenarios such as repelling pirates in Somalia and suicide bombers in the middle east (Goodman, 2009). Copyright © 2010–2021, The Conversation US, Inc. The possible influence of noise frequency components on the health of exposed industrial workers. The amplitude (height) of the sound wave governs its volume. In order to full understand how the military application of sound can impact subjects psychologically, we must first understand how sound effects us mentally. Just as TI perps are usually experts at harassing and persecuting TIs, they use those same intentions against us. It is the result of this effect in the middle ear, that (Goodman, 2010 p. 18) cites as being discovered by military personnel during World War 1 and World War 2. Infrasound. However, it is within the creation of new weapons that many issues arise, which perhaps may be a reason there is little evidence for the deployment of NLW. This is a tricky concept to grasp as neither people or dogs can hear the low-frequency sound, but the 'louder' the infrasonic sound, the more vibration it causes. Phasor Pain Field Generator. The length of the chamber was one- quarter the wavelength of the sound in air. Aesthetics and psychobiology. Retrieved from http://waubrafoundation.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ Broner-The-effects-of-low-frequency-noise-on-people.pdf, Carovac, A., Smajlovic, F., & Junuzovic, D. (2011). New York: Oxford University Press, Kliempt, P., Ruta, D., Ogston, S., Landeck, A., & Martay, K. (1999). Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1191555/ Good_Vibrations_The_Case_for_a_Specific_Effect_of_Infrasound_in_Instances_of_Anom alous_Experience_has_Yet_to_be_Empirically_Demonstrated, Broner, N. (2003). Please provide the proper credit for this work. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564184/, Caterina Filimon, R. (n.d.). It can vary depending on the frequency, modulation (pattern), loudness, time of exposure, environment, and the age and hearing characteristics of the individual. Retrieved from http://www.eastcoastrip.org/did-you-know/ infrasound, E. Simon, L. (1971). Harding, G. W., Bohne, B. New Scientist, September Issue. The present chapter within this text will analyse research collated that will allow for a greater insight into the application of infrasound on the human body, thus allowing us to formulate a background before exploring the outcome of the research tested within this study. Within Table 1 we can see a notable number of applications that infrasound could possibly or has been applied for: Infrasound has resulted in a large amount of interest within the creation of NLW. All sound waves are longitudinal – involving a cyclic pushing and pulling motion of molecules as the wave travels, called compression and rarefaction. Each frequency enters the auditory canal of the ear through to the cochlea; in turn the basilar membrane resonates at the frequency heard, this passes to the brain allowing us to recognise the frequency (Cook, 1999). It has frequency less than the audible frequency range. Instead, these injuries are probably the side effects of intrusive surveillance. Throughout the 20th and 21st century, there has been a vast amount of research collected and interest gained in the use of non-lethal weapons (NLW), which are intended to immobilise or impair targets without causing permanent or severe damage to the human body. A brief history of sonic warfare. & Meyer, D. J. . It also goes on to say that “Most people are intensely annoyed by the device and have a compelling wish to be somewhere else.” (New Scientist, 1973). HEYS, T. (2011). It is apparent that the frequency range sitting around 7Hz has been widely discussed as changing a subject emotional state when exposed. “A young Palestinian covers his ears from a sound, launched by a new weapon of the Israeli army, during a demonstration against the construction of Israel’s separation barrier at the West Bank village of Bil’in Friday, June 3, 2005. Anaesthesia. However, this does not suggest that the effect of infrasound on both IHC and OHC do not have a psychological effect on the brain. Retrieved from http://www.zemos98.org/controlsonoro/wp-content/uploads/pdf/acoustic_noise_Roman_Vinour.pdf, Mackinlay, C. (n.d.). A., Lee, S. C., & Salt, A. N. (2007). The actual range varies from person to person. Today I talked to an attorney who stated the apparently common view that the Seattle Police Department (SPD) is clueless when it comes to technology crimes. This suggest that perhaps the device’s intended use is to create auditory discomfort for the target audience, in order for them to move away from a specific area. Sitting in the wrong position for too long could then cause hearing damage without the subjects noticing. 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